Här kommer ett intressant uttalande av Ms Shamsa Mwangunga,The minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, i Tanzania i gårdagens The Citizen (Dar es Salaam).
”…says contrary to reports that the ice caps were decreasing owing to effects of global warming, indications were that the snow cover on Africa’s highest mountain were now increasing.
Among the signs of more snow is the decrease in temperatures in areas surrounding the mountain, heavy rainfall this year and increased precipitation and spring water flow on the slopes of the mountain,” she pointed out.”
”She said reports that the ice caps at the 5,895 metres high mountain would disappear in the next 20 years were overblown because there were signs that the snow cover had increased in recent years.”
Mt Kilimanjaro januari 2008
Det här var ju ett av paradnumren (tillsammans med isbjörnarna) i Al Gores Doom and Gloom show ”An inconvenient truth”. Och användes som ett ”avgörande” bevis för Global Warming Hysterikernas tes att CO2 driver temperaturen.
I en undersökning ”The Shrinking Glaciers of Kilimanjaro: Can Global Warming Be Blamed?” som presenterades i American Scientist, Volume 95, Number 4 (2007) gjord av Philip W. Mote, Georg Kaser (glaciologist, the University of Innsbruck) konstateras följande:
”But the commonly heard-and generally correct-statement that glaciers are disappearing because of warming glosses over the physical processes responsible for their disappearance. Indeed, warming fails spectacularly to explain the behavior of the glaciers and plateau ice on Africa’s Kilimanjaro massif, just 3 degrees south of the equator, and to a lesser extent other tropical glaciers. The disappearing ice cap of the ”shining mountain,” which gets a starring role in the movie, is not an appropriate poster child for global climate change. Rather, extensive field work on tropical glaciers over the past 20 years by one of us (Kaser) reveals a more nuanced and interesting story. Kilimanjaro, a trio of volcanic cones that penetrate high into the cold upper troposphere, has gained and lost ice through processes that bear only indirect connections, if any, to recent trends in global climate.
The fact that glaciers exist in the tropics at all takes some explaining. Atmospheric temperatures drop about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude, so the air atop a 5,000-meter mountain can be 32.5 degrees colder than the air at sea level; thus, even in the tropics, high-mountain temperatures are generally below freezing. The climber ascending such a mountain passes first through lush tropical vegetation that gradually gives way to low shrubs, then grasses and finally a zone that is nearly devoid of vegetation because water is not available in liquid form. Tropical mountaintop temperatures vary only a little from season to season, since the sun is high in the sky at midday throughout the year. With temperatures this low, snow accumulates in ice layers and glaciers on Kilimanjaro, Mount Kenya and the Rwenzori range in East Africa, on Irian Jaya in Indonesia and especially in the Andean cordillera in South America, where 99.7 percent of the ice in tropical glaciers is found.”
”But Mote and Kaser say that the Kilimanjaro glaciers are not melting but sublimating-turning straight to vapor-under the direct action of solar radiation at temperatures that remain below freezing. Whatever is happening elsewhere, Kilimanjaro’s ice seems not to be succumbing to climate change.”
Figure 3. Kilimanjaro’s location in a dry and cold tropical climate zone changes its mass- balance equation. In the tropics glaciers do not move between winter and summer, snowfall and melting; temperatures vary more from morning to afternoon than from season to season. The ice cap on Kilimanjaro consists of ice on the 5,700-meter-high flat summit, some with vertical edges, and several slope glaciers, mostly at altitudes where temperatures stay well below freezing and the major source of energy is solar radiation. Considerable infrared radiation is emitted from the glacier surface into the surrounding air, and the glaciers lose the most mass through sublimation-the direct conversion of ice to water vapor. Observers have seen only a trickle of meltwater.
Och så här sa den engelske domaren om Al Gores film:
”A controversial documentary on climate change which has been sent to thousands of schools has been criticised by a High Court judge for being ‘alarmist’ and ‘exaggerated’.
Mr Justice Burton said former US vice-president Al Gore’s film, An Inconvenient Truth, was ‘one-sided’ and would breach education rules unless accompanied by a warning.
Despite winning lavish praise from the environmental lobby and an Oscar from the film industry, Mr Gore’s documentary was found to contain ‘nine scientific errors’ by the judge.
The judge then set out nine errors in the film which went against current mainstream scientific consensus:
Error 5: The disappearance of snow on Mt Kilimanjaro due to global warming. Judge: It cannot be established that the recession of snows on Mt Kilimanjaro is mainly attributed to human-induced climate change.”
Och så här sa reportern i New York Times i ett reportage där de besteg Kilimanjaro från den 21 januari 2008:
”I had wanted to climb to the roof of Africa before climate change erased its ice fields and the romance of its iconic ”Snows of Kilimanjaro” image. But as we trudged across the 12,000-foot Shira plateau on Day 2 of our weeklong climb and gazed at the whiteness of the vast, humpbacked summit, I thought maybe I needn’t have worried.
An up-and-down-and-up traverse of the south face of Kibo, the tallest of the mountain’s three volcanic peaks, showed us a panorama of the summit ice cap and fractured tentacles of glacial ice that dangled down gullies dividing the vertical rock faces. And four days later, when we reached 19,340-foot Uhuru, the highest point on Kibo, we beheld snow and ice fields so enormous as to resemble the Arctic.
It looked nothing like the photographs of Kibo nearly denuded of ice and snow in the Al Gore documentary ”An Inconvenient Truth.” Nor did it seem to jibe with the film’s narrative: ”Within the decade, there will be no more snows of Kilimanjaro.”
”Patchy snow covered the upper slopes above approximately 18,500 feet. At dawn, as we reached Stella Point at the lower lip of Kibo’s summit crater, the fluted walls of the flat-topped Rebmann Glacier stretched out to our left.
Snow blanketed the summit area, a mile and a half wide and hemmed by glaciers. Uhuru, the highest point in all Africa, was a 45-minute slog ahead.”
Se även mina inlägg: You have to be the” right” sort of native if Global Warming Hysterics will care about you and your habitat!, The Bush administration caved in – Polar Bear Is Declared a Threatened Species!, Kanada nedgraderar ”hotet” mot isbjörnarna! Or More Polar Bear Baloney, Mera isbjörnar! Och fler och fler blir dom., ”The report of our extinction was an exaggeration.”, Dessa Isbjörnar igen!,
Artikeln finns här:
Studien finns här
Foton finns här:
Artikel och foto finns här
Läs även andra bloggares åsikter om <a href=”http://bloggar.se/om/milj%F6“ rel=”tag”>miljö</a>
Minister – Ice Won’t Vanish On Kili
The Citizen (Dar es Salaam)
26 May 2008
Posted to the web 26 May 2008
By Enos Masanja
A Cabinet minister has allayed fears that ice caps on Mt Kilimanjaro that is a big tourist attraction in the region could disappear permanently.
The minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, Ms Shamsa Mwangunga, says contrary to reports that the ice caps were decreasing owing to effects of global warming, indications were that the snow cover on Africa’s highest mountain were now increasing.
”Among the signs of more snow is the decrease in temperatures in areas surrounding the mountain, heavy rainfall this year and increased precipitation and spring water flow on the slopes of the mountain,” she pointed out.
The minister toured the mountain last week as part of activities to mark the African Travel Association’s annual meeting held in Arusha.
She said reports that the ice caps at the 5,895 metres high mountain would disappear in the next 20 years were overblown because there were signs that the snow cover had increased in recent years.
Ms Mwangunga explained that initiatives have been taken to minimise the effects of global warming and preserve the mountain’s environment among other natural tourism attraction features.
”If we believe that the situation is caused by global warming, then it is time for the international community to implement effectively the Kyoto Protocol by reducing greenhouse gas emissions,” she argued.
The minister’s remarks contradicted those of her predecessor, Prof Jumanne Maghembe. He was speaking at a meeting of wildlife scientists last December.
Now the minister for Education and Vocational Training, Prof Maghembe quoted data from scientists indicating that the ice cap on Mt Kilimanjaro has dropped by over 80 per cent in the last 100 years.
He warned that the snow on Mt Kilimanjaro, one of the leading tourist attractions in the country, could disappear in the next 20 years at the current melting rate.
In 2002, Ms Zakhia Meghji, then minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, also rejected reports of fast depreciation of the snow on Mt Kilimanjaro.
She said no conclusive data had been arrived at by scientists on the matter.
At a meeting of natural resource experts, she said the amount of snow cover fluctuated depending on seasons and cycles of drought in the eastern Africa region.
However, scientists who have been observing the mountain glaciers over the years insist that there was approximately 12.1 square kilometres of ice on the mountain in 1901.
According to them, aerial photographs taken in 2000 showed that only 2.2 square kilometres of ice remained on the mountain and that most of the loss occurred since 1970. They blamed the situation on climatic changes.
An official of the National Environment Management Council (NEMC), Mr Carlos Mbuta, said in Arusha recently that recent observations by scientists on Mt Kilimanjaro indicated that out of every 1,000 tonnes of water from the mountain, 400 tonnes originated directly from the ice caps.
Scientists warning on the diminishing ice caps said they used maps, modern navigational satellites and markers placed on the mountain to measure the ice. They maintain that, at the current melting rate, the ice cap could be gone by 2020.
Minister Mwangunga said, as part of conservation efforts, some 4.8 million indigenous trees will be planted around the mountain to stem soil erosion and protect water sources.
Tree planting was one of the measures taken to conserve the mountain and its ecosystem. Another was the relocation of 20,000 people from the mountain’s forest belt in Hai and West Kilimanjaro areas.
The snow-capped Kilimanjaro, made up of three extinct volcanoes-Kibo, Mawenzi and Shira- is one of the largest free outstanding mountains in the world. It attracts about 60,000 tourists annually, mainly mountain climbers.
Copyright © 2008 The Citizen
Etiketter: Al Gore, East Africa, Global Warming Hysteri, ice cap, in the tropics, Kilimanjaro massif, more snow, Ms Shamsa Mwangunga, Mt Kilimanjaro, sublimation, Tanzania, the direct conversion of ice to water vapor, The minister for Natural Resources and Tourism